how does the internet work

How INTERNET Works? Who Owns The INTERNET?


INTERNET means Inter-connected Networks. The Internet has become the basic need of every human being. Without the Internet, no one can imagine their life. Nowadays No smartphone is there which don’t have an Internet Connection on it. In the last few years, Internet users have become double especially in INDIA. From Entertainment to Education, the Internet plays a major role. But have you ever wonder that How does INTERNET works?

Internet works on a simple process, by exchanging of packets from the server to the users through the various Routers. Packets are nothing, when a flow of data executed then the data is transmitted in the form of various small groups and then each packets is transmitted one by one continuously.

The Internet began in the 1960s as a US-Army funded project. It was then only used by the US-Army to keep exchanging of information within the US-Army. But later on from the 1980s with the support of many Private Companies, it has become available for the local people to use. But at that time it was not very common for every people because at that time computers were not affordable for everyone. 

The ’90s was very special for the INTERNET, as Google, Blogger, Social Media were introduced. These played a very special role in the engagement of the people towards the INTERNET. People were started to take interest in these platforms. Introduction of email facilities, also became the greatest factor for the enhancement of Internet users.

In INDIA, 2015 was very special for the people. Reliance launched JIO, which was a Revolutionary for the people of INDIA. In 2015, the price for 1 GB data was Rs.150 and the average data consumption of each people was 2 GB at that time. After JIO, the price of Internet DATA was so reduced to approx Rs.5, and speed was so enhanced as JIO was a 4-G based Network. Later on this Article, you will learn about, How Internet Works?

India is the 2nd Largest Active INTERNET Users in the World with 500 million active users.



INTERNET is an Inter-connected Network that means for accessing the INTERNET we are connected through a path where the flow of data is transmitted. For accessing INTERNET we send a request to the Server and ask for the definite content then the Server responds back to us.

Every Content that is available on the INTERNET is stored in the WEB SERVER. When we open any content over the Internet then a request is sent to the Server in the form of an IP Address. Then the Server responds back the request in the form of the small data groups known as Packets which are transmitted through the Optical Fibres. These Optical Fibres are connected to our Mobile Towers then from there it is transmitted to our devices.

SERVER is nothing but a collection of various Computers that are used to store the data of the content. As for example, Google and Facebook have its own Server that is situated in the U.S. When we request to open Google or Facebook in the web browser then a request is sent to the Server in the U.S in the form of IP Address and then the Server sends us the data so that we access that websites. These processes are done in such a huge speed that we can’t even Imagine.

how the internet works


Here Step by Step Demonstration that “How does Internet Works” is explained below. I Hope you have understood the concept of Servers, Routers, IP Address, Optical Fibres. Because these terms are going to use for the explanation of How does Working of the Internet occurs?.

As it is cleared that For Accessing the Internet Content, we need an Inter-connected Network. When we Browse something on Web Browser then a request for that particular Website or content is sent to the Server and in return, the data (packets) are sent back to the web browser. These whole transmission is done with the help of packet switches.

Let Suppose, we type then with the help of DNS (Domain Naming Server) this Name is converted into the IP Address of which is a unique IP Address. Conversion of the IP Address, is important because Network understands the IP Address not the Domain Name. We could not remember IP Address for every website so for our convenience Domain Name are used. 

When the IP Address is called for particular content or website then by the help of Routers these requests are sent to the definite Servers. For Facebook it is sent to the Facebook-Server that is located in the U.S. or for Flipkart it is sent to India. 

working of Internet via cables

If any users are sending a request to the other continent then these requests and flow of packets are done by the help of Optical Fibres and then to the Landing Points that are the points where the Optical Fibres are connected in any Country. Or If the Server is present in the same country then the transmission is done by the Mobile Towers and the Routers. The speed of the website is also based on the distance of the Server from your Location.

The Landing Points Distribute the Data to the various junctions which are then responsible to distribute the data to your local area. These Huge Inter-connected Processes are done with such a lightning-fast speed that you surf the content within a few seconds.


To maintain the flow of data (packets) from user to the Server and vice-versa, the connection should be continuous. When any user request for any website over the Internet then to maintain the speed it is mandatory that the flow of data should be extremely fast. With Satellite, it is not possible that user request could be possible within a few seconds. Especially if the Server is located in any far location and the request is done from any other far place. As for example, If we browse from India then the Server of Facebook is located in the U.S. so to interact with the Server of Facebook, Satellite request will take a very long time to transmit the packets.

Here the concept of Optical Fibres come in play. Optical Fibres are the Cables which consists of a thread-like wire in it that works on the principle of Total Internal Reflection. In simple words, Optical Fibres transmitted the packets with the light Energy by the help of which the data transmit with the speed of light that is nearly 3,00,000 km/second. 

No other transmission can be done with such a huge speed that’s why Optical Fibres are used for the Interconnection from the Servers to the different junctions through the ocean. Various Optical Fibres are spread all over the world to stay Interconnected. For maintaining such huge connectivity, Optical Fibres Cable is immersed into the ocean and then to the junctions from where it is further connected to the towers or routers.

working of Internet
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In First Paragraph we have already talked about the history of the Internet. We have also discussed above that how does the INTERNET work? If you don’t Read the above paragraphs then kindly read above first otherwise you can also continue from here.

The Internet provides us the facilities to exchange data from one point to another point. These whole transmission is controlled by protocols which is known as Transmission Control Protocol. Whenever we upload any data, video, pictures, or songs then it is stored on a server. Server is different for the different domains as We have already discussed above. Internet provides us the connection so that we can request to access that particular data and Internet helps us to do all the backend work.

A Majority of the flow of data is dependent on the Optical Fibres and then the various Routers and the Internet Service Provider. Sometimes we also hear that the Net Connectivity is slow because the server is not good. But Many factors are responsible for the Slow Connection of the Internet.


If you want to know the name, who owns the Internet then the owner of the Internet is No one. Then why do we pay for Internet usage? Why Every Operator charge us for Every GB? 

The Answer is quite Simple, As I have explained above that for the transmission of the data the flow of packets from one point to another point is very important. Mostly these are done with the help of Optical Fibres because most of the Servers are situated in the U.S. The life of Optical Fibres are at most 25 years, and in every 25 years these Optical Fibres are getting replaced. Sometimes many Fish such as Shark cut the wire in between by which the transmission gets stuck. To minimize this interruption, More Optical Fibres Cables are used as a backup.

These Cables are very costly and for the maintenance of these cables and Routers are very costly. So our operator basically charges us for the maintenance purposes which is based upon per Giga Bytes (GB) consumption. 


This is the Flow Diagram that shows that how Internet works with the help of internet protocol exchange from one computer to another computer that is connected with each other through the LAN (Local Area Network) Network. 

How does the internet work diagram


For Stable Connection the Flow of Data shouldn’t be interrupted. The Request is first Generated from one of the User’s devices then It is sent to the Mobile Towers of the Local Area provided by your ISP (Internet Service Provider). Then these Mobile Towers send requests through the wires to the Main Junctions/ip junctions and then that junctions distribute the request based on the Server Locations for the data moving.

 Lastly, these requests are sent through the Optical Fibres to the Data Centre where the Server are located. The Factors that could be responsible for the Slow Internet Speed that affects the working of the Internet, causes slow load of the web page are:

  • The Bandwidth of the Mobile Towers could be Full due to the High Number of Users in that area.
  • A High Number of Users access the same Server.
  • The Optical Wires may be broken in between.
  • The Server could be at Maintenance Mode.
  • Your Device could have Low LTE Bands or low bandwidth. 

I hope you have got to know about How does Internet Works and the Factor responsible for the working of  the Internet all over the World.

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